Chief ministers supervise the business of government and report to the governor. Unless they resign or die, the chief minister remains in office even after a cabinet or council of ministers is dismissed. The CM is also a member of the Inter-State Council and National Development Council headed by the Prime Minister.

The chief minister is often considered to be a power behind the scenes, though this is largely a perception rather than an actual fact. He must deal with a series of economic problems including a budget deficit, a struggling tourist industry and strikes by workers demanding the introduction of a minimum wage. He is also expected to lead an effort to tackle the country’s soaring internal inflation, which has been caused by high international food prices and rising demand for consumer goods.

During the reign of Hosni Mubarak, Egypt implemented comprehensive economic reform policies that relaxed price controls, reduced subsidies and introduced lower taxes, as well as liberalising trade and investment. These changes contributed to higher growth rates, but also exacerbated domestic inflationary pressures. In the aftermath of the global financial crisis, Egypt faced long-term supply- and demand-side repercussions from elevated international food prices.

The government imposes a wide range of restrictions on freedom of association and expression. A local organisation that tracks violations of these rights recorded 138 cases in the first six months of 2019. A court designation as a terrorist may be accompanied by a travel ban, assets freeze and passport cancellation.